Hand hat Protein Scoop mit Proteinpulver

What are proteins made of?

Proteins: The macromolecules of life in detail

Proteins, found in every living organism, are essential macromolecules that perform a variety of functions in the body. From structural components to the regulation of biochemical processes, proteins are fundamental to the existence and function of the human body. But what are the building blocks of these fascinating macromolecules?

Protein structure complexity:

Proteins are made up of amino acids. These amino acids are connected to each other by peptide bonds, and the precise arrangement and sequence of these amino acids determines the three-dimensional structure and therefore the function of a protein. There are 20 different amino acids that can occur in countless combinations and sequences to create the diversity of proteins.

Amino acids in detail:

Essential amino acids:

  1. Leucine: This amino acid plays a crucial role in protein synthesis, promotes muscle building and supports the provision of energy.
  2. Isoleucine: Important for muscle regeneration, energy metabolism and the regulation of blood sugar levels.
  3. Valine: Helps regenerate muscle tissue and supports energy production.

Semi-essential and non-essential amino acids:

  1. Glutamine: Essential for the immune system, contributes to intestinal health and is an important source of energy for certain cells.
  2. Arginine: Plays a role in nitric oxide production, which dilates blood vessels and promotes blood flow.
  3. Aspartic acid: Important for energy metabolism and the synthesis of neurotransmitters.

Functions of proteins in the body:

  1. Structural function: Proteins form the basic structure of cells, tissues, muscles and organs and are crucial for their functionality and integrity.
  2. Enzymatic function: Enzymes, proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions, are essential for metabolic processes in the body.
  3. Transport function: Certain proteins, such as hemoglobin, transport oxygen in the blood and support the exchange of substances in cells.

Protein sources and dietary requirements:

Animal protein sources:

  1. Meat: Red meats such as beef, pork, and poultry are rich in high-quality protein.
  2. Fish: Fish is not only rich in protein, but also provides important omega-3 fatty acids.
  3. Eggs: Eggs are a complete source of protein, rich in various amino acids.

Plant protein sources:

  1. Legumes: Beans, lentils and chickpeas are rich in protein and fiber.
  2. Nuts and Seeds: Almonds, walnuts, chia seeds, and flaxseeds are excellent plant-based protein sources.
  3. Soy products: Tofu, tempeh and soy milk are complete proteins and ideal for vegetarians and vegans.

Protein allowed in the diet:

Protein allowance varies depending on age, gender, weight, activity level and goals. As a general guideline, it is recommended that adults consume about 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day. Active people, athletes, or people looking to build or repair muscle may need a little more protein.

Importance of a balanced protein intake:

  1. Muscle recovery and building: Proteins support the repair of muscle tissue after training and contribute to muscle building.
  2. Satiety and weight control: Proteins can help promote a feeling of satiety and therefore regulate appetite.
  3. Healthy body tissues: Proteins are important not only for muscles, but also for bones, skin, hair and organs.

Selection and combination of protein sources:

Combining different protein sources can ensure that all essential amino acids are absorbed. This is called a "complementary protein source" and can be achieved by combining different plant proteins (such as legumes and grains) or animal and plant proteins.


Proteins are essential components of life and fulfill a variety of functions in the human body. Their structure, diversity and functionality make them a key element for the health and functioning of the organism. A balanced diet that includes a variety of protein sources is crucial to providing the body with all necessary amino acids and supporting the diversity of protein functions.

Back to blog